Permaculture Principles by Bill Mollison - World Permaculture Association (2022)

  • Relative location.
  • Each element performs multiple functions.
  • Each function is supported by many elements.
  • Energy efficient planning.
  • Using biological resources.
  • Energy cycling.
  • Small-scale intensive systems.
  • Natural plant succession and stacking.
  • Polyculture and diversity of species.
  • Increasing “edge” within a system.
  • Observe and replicate natural patterns.
  • Pay attention to scale.
  • Attitude:

Everything works both ways – Every resource is either an advantage or a disadvantage, depending on the use made of it.

(Video) What is Permaculture? By Bill Mollison, David Holmgren

Permaculture is information and imagination-intensive – It is the quality of thought and the information we use that determines yield, not the size or quality of the site.

Practical Design Considerations

  • The systems we construct should last as long as possible and take least maintenance.
  • These systems, fueled by the sun, should produce not only their own needs, but also the needs of those creating and managing them. Thus they are “sustainable, as they sustain both themselves and those who construct them.
  • We can use energy to construct these systems, providing that in their lifetime, they store or conserve more energy than we use to construct them or to maintain them (EROEI>1).

Elements of a total Permaculture Design

The Design – the harmonious integration of landscape and people:

(Video) Dryland Permaculture Strategies Bill Mollison

  • Site Components – water, earth, landscape, climate, plants.
  • Energy Components – technologies, connections, structures, sources.
  • Abstract Components – timing, data, ethics.
  • Social Components – legal aids, people, culture, trade & finance.

A more detailed explanation of the aforementioned is provided in the following:

  • Relative Location – Components placed in a system are viewed relatively, not in isolation.
  • Functional Relationship Between Components – Everything is connected to everything else.
  • Recognize Functional Relationships Between Elements – Every function is supported by many elements.
  • Functional Redundancy – Good design ensures that all important functions can withstand the failure of one or more elements. Design backups.
  • Every Element is Supported by Many Functions/Functional Design – Each element and component we include in a system is chosen and placed so that it performs as many functions as possible. Every essential function should be supported by many components.
  • The Basic Rule of Energy Conservation – Every element (plant, animal or structure) must be placed so that it serves at least two or more functions. Every function (e.g. water collection, fire protection) is served in two or more ways.
  • Local Focus – “Think globally – Act locally” Grow your own food, cooperate with neighbors. Community efficiency not self-sufficiency.
  • Diversity – As a general rule, as sustainable systems mature they become increasingly diverse in both space and time. What is important is the complexity of the functional relationships that exist between elements not the number of elements.
  • Placement Principle – If broad initial patterning is well analysed, and good placements made, many more advantages than we would have designed for become obvious – OR, if we start well, other good things naturally follow as an unplanned result.
  • Use Biological Resources – We know living things reproduce and build up their availability over time, assisted by their interaction with other compatible elements. Use and reserve biological intelligence.
  • One Calorie In/One Calorie Out (Energy Returned Over Energy Invested or EROEI) – Do not consume or export more biomass than carbon fixed by the solar budget.
  • Stocking – Finding the balance of various elements to keep one from overpowering another over time. How much of an element needs to be produced in order to fulfill the need of whole system?
  • Stacking – Multiple functions provided by each element and component (stacking functions). Multilevel/Scaffolded garden design, i.e., trellising, forest garden, vines, groundcovers, etc.
  • Succession – Recognize that certain elements prepare the way for systems to support other elements in the future, i.e.: succession planting.
  • Use Onsite Resources – Determine what resources are available and entering the system on their own and maximize their use.
  • Edge Effect – Ecotones are the most diverse and fertile area in a system. Two ecosystems come together to form a third which has more diversity than either of the other two, i.e.: edges of ponds, forests, meadows, currents etc. Permaculture has been referred to as ‘Edge Culture’.
  • Energy Recycling – Yields from system designed to supply onsite needs and/or needs of local region.
  • Small Scale – Intensive Systems start small and create a system that is manageable and produces a high yield.
  • Make the Least Change for the Greatest Effect – The less change that is generated, the less embedded energy is used to endow the system.
  • Planting Strategy (selection criteria) – 1st priority are proven native species, 2nd priority are proven exotic/non-native species, 3rd priority are unproven exotics/marginal species (the designed provision of microclimates could make them viable) – carefully on small scale with lots of observation.
  • Work Within Nature – Aiding the natural (biogeochemical) cycles results in higher yield and less work. A little support goes a long way.
  • Appropriate Technology – The same principles apply to cooking, lighting, transportation, heating, sewage treatment, water and other utilities.
  • Law of Return – Whatever we take, we must return. Every object must responsibly provide for its replacement. Natural systems demand a return for every gift received (“the user must pay”).
  • Principle of Stress and Harmony – Stress may be defined as either prevention of natural function, or of forced function. Harmony may be defined as the integration of chosen and natural functions – and the easy supply of essential needs. Forcing a design element to function is a different proposition than putting it in a position where its natural or everyday behaviours permit benefits to other parts of the system. It is the design approach itself that permits components to provide many functions without forcing functions upon that element.
  • Principle of Cooperation – Cooperation, not competition, is the very basis of future survival and of existing life systems.
  • The Problem is the Solution – We are the problem, we are the solution. Turn constraints into resources. Mistakes are tools for learning.
  • Limits to Yield – The yield of a system is theoretically unlimited; the only limit on the number of possible/potential uses of a resource is the limit of available information and the imagination, comprehension, understanding, and ability of the designer or manager of the system.
  • Everything Gardens – or has an effect on its environment.
  • Dispersal of Yield Over Time – As expressed by the principal of considering the impact of decisions made in the present on “seven generations” into the future. We can use energy to construct these systems, providing that in their lifetime, they store or conserve more energy that we use to construct them or to maintain them.
  • Policy of Responsibility (to relinquish power & control) – The role of successful design is to create a self-managed system.
  • Policy of Resource Management – prohibits the use of resources which permanently reduce yields of sustainable resources, e.g. pollutants, persistent poisons, radioactives, large areas of concrete and highways, sewers from city to sea, etc.
  • Principle of Disorder – Order and harmony produce energy for other uses. Disorder consumes energy to no useful end. Neatness, tidiness, uniformity, and straightness signify an energy-maintained disorder in natural systems. Chaos has form, but is not predictable.
  • Entropy – In complex systems, disorder is an increasing result. Living things are functionally “anti-entropic”.
  • Metastability – For a complex system to remain stable, there must be small pockets of disorder.
  • Entelechy – Principal of genetic intelligence. i.e. The rose has thorns to protect itself.
  • Principle of Self-Regulation – The purpose of a functional and self-regulating design is to place elements or components in such a way that each serves the needs, and accepts the products of other elements.
  • Observation – Protracted & thoughtful observation rather than protracted and thoughtless labor.
  • We are surrounded by “insurmountable opportunities” – the system’s designer is the limiting factor in realizing them.
  • Wait One Year – (in reference to thoughtful observation).
  • Hold water and fertility as high (in elevation) on the landscape as possible – Utilise gravity to do the work for movement and dispersal.
  • Definition of System Yield – the sum total of surplus energy produced by, stored, conserved, reused, or converted by the design. Energy is in surplus once the system itself has readily available access to the resources it needs for growth, reproduction, and maintenance.
  • The Role of Life in Yield – Living things, including people, are the only effective intervening systems to capture resources on Earth and, as a result, to produce a yield. Thus, it is the sum and capacity of life forms which decide total system yield and surplus.
  • Pollutants/Pollution – an output of any system component that is not being used productively by any other component of the system.
  • Extra Work – the result of an input not readily and automatically provided by another component of the system.


  • Permaculture: A Designers’ Manual (1988) by Bill Mollison
  • Introducion to Permaculture (1991) by Bill Mollison

Learn More:

(Video) Mariefields Farmstay - World First Permaculture Farm created by Bill Mollison Father of Permaculture

Permaculture Principles by David Holmgren

Foundational Concepts

(Video) Permaculture People - Bill Mollison

Regenerative Agriculture


(Video) Permaculture with Bill Mollison - Epi 4 - Urban


What are the 12 principles of permaculture? ›

The 12 design principles of permaculture
  • Observe and Interact with Nature. ...
  • Catch and Store Energy. ...
  • Obtain a Yield. ...
  • Apply Self Regulation and Accept Feedback. ...
  • Use and Value Renewable Resources. ...
  • Produce No Waste. ...
  • Design From Patterns to Details. ...
  • Integrate Rather Than Segregate.

What are the three core principles of permaculture? ›

Earth Care, People Care, and Fair Share are the three core values of permaculture.

How many permaculture principles are there? ›

The 12 permaculture principles can give us pointers towards living a slower and more sustainable life, in and beyond the garden. Each principle can be interpreted broadly, here are just a few examples of how you might apply them to your backyard or to your life.

What are the core principles of Perma? ›

The PERMA Model represents the five core elements of happiness and well-being. PERMA basically stands for Positive Emotion, Engagement, Relationships, Meaning, and Accomplishments. American psychologist and educator Martin Seligman designed the PERMA Model.

What is the difference between permaculture and organic farming? ›

In permaculture gardening, energy is transferred from one source to another before leaving the system entirely. Whereas, with organic gardening, since fertilizers are used, the waste from one plant becomes food for another organism.

How many acres do you need for permaculture? ›

To establish a self-seeding, low-maintenance, backyard food forest capable of feeding you and your family, you would probably need around 1/30th of an acre per person, which is 1450 square feet or 38 by 38 feet. This figure is based on 2000lbs (900kgs) of fresh produce per person per year.

What is permaculture and why is it important? ›

“Permaculture” as a practice, simply means observing nature, researching tools and techniques used by indigenous people in your bioregion, and engaging in a diligent, daily practice of balancing the needs of yourself and your family with those of the other species all around you.

What is an example of permaculture? ›

Examples include buildings that support outside plant life, backyard and balcony gardens, and energy-saving green initiatives such as the installation of gray water reclamation systems. The permaculture movement has its critics.

What is permaculture Bill Mollison? ›

Permaculture is a philosophy for a sustainable, holistic lifestyle. Ecological researcher and writer, Bill Mollison and David Holmgren coined the term in 1978. They combined the words permanent and agriculture to create permaculture as a system of ecological farming.

Can permaculture be profitable? ›

The profit potential under permaculture can be estimated from the fact that another older technique, which also relies on local inputs, is giving farmers good dividends. Permaculture follows several principles that are a part of India's traditional methods of farming.

What is a permaculture lifestyle? ›

It is the harmonious integration of the landscape with people providing their food, energy, shelter and other material and non-material needs in a sustainable way.” In other words, permaculture is a holistic, living-in-harmony-with-nature worldview, as well as technical approach for how to do so.

What are the 12 principles of design? ›

There are twelve basic principles of design: contrast, balance, emphasis, proportion, hierarchy, repetition, rhythm, pattern, white space, movement, variety, and unity.

Which element of perma is the most important? ›

Gratitude Letter

Creating a Gratitude Letter is one of the most effective exercises used in the PERMA model. Just like the gratitude journal mentioned earlier, fostering gratitude can significantly improve all aspects of PERMA (positive emotions, engagement, relationships, meaning, and accomplishment).

Who started permaculture? ›

Bruce Charles "Bill" Mollison — known as the "father of permaculture" — died on Saturday in Hobart, aged 88. His system advocated agricultural ecosystems that were sustainable and self-sufficient. Mr Mollison rose to prominence after publishing Permaculture One with David Holmgren in 1974.

What are the characteristics of permaculture? ›

To sum it up in a few words:
  • Diverse.
  • Interwoven.
  • Multi layered.
  • Conservative (of resources!)
  • Self-regulating.
  • Self-repairing.
  • Low inputs.
  • High yields.

How does permaculture help the environment? ›

Regarding soil management, permaculture designs seek to 'slow, spread, and sink' water. This reduces stormwater runoff, recharges the aquifer, and seeks to eliminate soil erosion, thereby reducing the amount of carbon and nitrogen which leave the soil.

Why is permaculture better than monoculture? ›

Permaculture integrates patterns in ecosystems to replicate biodiversity into agriculture to minimalize human energy intervention. Monoculture efficiently produces a single crop or livestock type grown in a specific area, relying heavily on human involvement and energy-intensive machinery.

How do you use permaculture? ›

There are eight basic permaculture gardening techniques for getting started with a sustainable garden.
  1. Acquaint yourself with your surroundings. ...
  2. Choose plants based on your environment. ...
  3. Design your garden layout. ...
  4. Build your garden beds. ...
  5. Plant your permaculture garden. ...
  6. Add a layer of organic mulch to the topsoil.
Jun 7, 2021

How much land does a family of 4 need to be self sufficient? ›

An infographic by breaks it down to about 2 acres of land for a family of four. This includes approximately 12,000 sq. feet for wheat, 65 for eggs, 2640 for corn, 100 for dairy, 207 for meat, and 77,000 square feet for vegetables.

Can you be self sufficient on 1 acre? ›

The truth is you can be self-sustaining on a 1-acre property but it takes work, education, dedication, and time. So, if you have an oversized lot or small acreage and want to be as sustainable as possible, here are some ideas and suggestions on how to get started creating a self-sufficient homestead.

Can you be self sufficient on 2 acres? ›

How much land does one need to be self-sufficient? Agricultural experts say the minimum amount of land needed in North America is between 2 and 17 acres per person.

What is the difference between permaculture and agriculture? ›

Agriculture is the practice of cultivating food for human consumption. Permaculture is “permanent agriculture” and integrates ecosystem patterns to improve the ethics and sustainability of farming practices. Depending on the scale, certain agricultural practices have environmental implications.

What is the basis for permaculture? ›

Permaculture can be understood as the growth of agricultural ecosystems in a self-sufficient and sustainable way. This form of agriculture draws inspiration from nature to develop synergetic farming systems based on crop diversity, resilience, natural productivity, and sustainability.

What are the benefits of using permaculture in agriculture? ›

Permaculture offers solutions for soil fertility, water conservation, climate change mitigation, and animal habitat. Its design principles help to maximize biodiversity and preserve wildlife by creating more habitat for animal species.

Who uses permaculture? ›

Anyone can use the principles of permaculture for urban gardening, as well as suburban or large acreage,” says Forman. “That can look like different things for different people.” She explains that there are different zones in permaculture, from zero to five.

What countries use permaculture? ›

Asia and the Middle East
  • India. Living Ecology and Permaculture Patashala provide higher education to permaculture professionals through practical permaculture projects in small villages. ...
  • Thailand. ...
  • Indonesia. ...
  • Cambodia. ...
  • Nepal. ...
  • Saudi Arabia.

Is permaculture a sustainable? ›

Permaculture, at its core, is sustainable agriculture. It also includes 12 design principles that expand beyond farming and offer an ecological approach to modern living and communities—for example, energy conservation and zero waste living.

What did Bill Mollison do? ›

Bill Mollison was an Australian researcher, author, scientist, teacher and biologist. He founded The Permaculture Institute in Tasmania, and created the education system to train others under the umbrella of permaculture.

Is permaculture a science? ›

Permaculture is an applied science, it is concerned with using technologies, explained or unexplained but proven to work by human experience (from different cultures all around the world), to solve specific problems in a sustainable way.

What are the 12 principles of design? ›

There are twelve basic principles of design: contrast, balance, emphasis, proportion, hierarchy, repetition, rhythm, pattern, white space, movement, variety, and unity.

What are the elements of permaculture? ›

These are: ethics, abstract principles, science & design principles, strategies, and techniques. I list them in order of fundamental importance to the concept of permaculture. They are also listed in reverse order of how many there are.

What is an example of permaculture? ›

Examples include buildings that support outside plant life, backyard and balcony gardens, and energy-saving green initiatives such as the installation of gray water reclamation systems. The permaculture movement has its critics.

What are the ethics of permaculture? ›

The three ethics are: Earth Care, People Care and Fair Shares. They are not exclusive to permaculture and were derived from the commonalities of many worldviews and beliefs. They are therefore shared by many throughout the world.

What is the most important principle of design? ›

Hierarchy. One of the most important principles in design, hierarchy is a way to visually rank your design elements. Hierarchy is not based on a design styles, but rather the order of importance.

What is the 7 elements of design? ›

The elements of design are the fundamental aspects of any visual design which include shape, color, space, form, line, value, and texture.

What are the principles of design PDF? ›

The principles of design (balance, contrast, emphasis, pattern unity, movement and rhythm) are how the elements of art are used.

Change your world.

Earth Care Manual - Patrick Whitefield Permaculture: A Beginners Guide - Graham Burnett Permaculture Design: a Step by Step Guide - Aranya People & Permaculture - Looby Macnamara Permaculture Principles & Pathways Beyond Sustainability - David Holmgren A Designers' Manual - Bill Mollison The Permaculture Garden - Graham Bell Creating a Forest Garden - Martin Crawford Gaia's Garden: A Guide to Home-scale Permaculture - Toby Hemenway Earth Restorer's Guide to Permaculture - Rosemary Morrow. Books are a great way to learn about permaculture, before putting into practice in your home, garden, community and life.. It’s a nice 76-page introductory look a permaculture — a very readable booklet to get you looking at the world, and your garden, through the permaculture lens.. This guide covers: Systems and patterns ~ Working as part of a design team ~ Land and non-land based design ~ Design frameworks ~ Site surveying and map making ~ Interviewing clients ~ Working with large client groups ~ Identifying functions ~ Choosing systems and elements ~ Placement and integration ~ Creating a design proposal ~ Project management ~ Presenting your ideas to clients ~ and much more.. Book summary : This is the first book to explore how to use permaculture design and principles for people - to restore personal, social and planetary well-being.. People & Permaculture widens the definition of permaculture from being mainly about land-based systems to include our own lives, relationships and society.. People & Permaculture transforms the context of permaculture making it relevant to everyone.. This book shows you how to plan your garden layout for easy access and minimum labour, save money by creating a beautiful garden in recycled containers, use garden crop successions for year-round harvests and healthy soil, choose the best plants for different sites and enjoy the benefits of plant communities.. Especially recommended for: those interested in the practical application of permaculture in a garden.. Book summary: The first edition of Gaia's Garden sparked the imagination of America's home gardeners, introducing permaculture's central message: Working with Nature, not against her, results in more beautiful, abundant, and forgiving gardens.. Whatever size yard or garden you have to work with, you can apply basic permaculture principles to make it more diverse, more natural, more productive, and more beautiful.. Described as an essential tool for anyone who wants to get the permaculture message over, this is an excellent guide, illustrating methods for teaching sustainability by 35 leading UK permaculture practitioners.. Earth Care, People Care and Fair Share in Education: The Children in Permaculture Manual is a ground-breaking book which shines a permaculture lens to inspire child-friendly, sustainable education.

Bill Mollison has been called the 'father of Permaculture', an integrated system of design co-developed with David Holmgren.

Permaculture is a philosophy of working with rather than against nature; of protracted and thoughtful observation rather than protracted and thoughtless action: of looking at systems and people in all their functions rather than asking only one yield of them; and of allowing systems to demonstrate their own evolutions.. If we do not get our cities, homes, and gardens in order, so that they feed and shelter us, we must lay waste to all other natural systems.. …the end result of the adoption of Permaculture strategies in any country or region will be to dramatically reduce the area of the agricultural environment needed by the households and the settlements of people, and to release much of the landscape for the sole use of wildlife and for re-occupation by endemic flora.. True order may lie in apparent confusion; it is the acid test of entropic order to test the system for yield.. We cannot bring order to the wilderness, it is already ordered.. We can’t go wrong in encouraging a complex of life in soils, from roots and mycorrhiza to moles and earthworms, and in thinking of ways in which soil life assists us to produce crop, it itself becomes a crop.. Too often, the pastoralist blames the weeds and seeks a chemical rather than a management solution; too seldom do we find an approach combining the sensible utilisation of grasshoppers and grubs as a valuable dried-protein supplement for fish or food pellets, and a combination of soil conditioning, slashing, and de-stocking or re-seeding to restore species balance.. It is possible, in Iran, Greece, North Africa, USA, Mexico, Pakistan, and Australia to see how, in our short history of life destruction, we have brought the hard bones of the earth to the surface by stripping the life skin from it for ephemeral uses.. At the base of Irish bogs the Fir Bolg (the little people), their axes, bridges, butter, and forest life are well preserved.. They want to; we need to give them this last chance to create forests, soils, clean waters, clean energies, secure communities, stable regions, and to know how to do it from hands-on experience. Freezing concentrates sugar (maple sugar), alcohol, and salt solutions as efficiently as heating distils water or alcohol from solutions.. A few people regularly collect their hickory nuts or wild rice in this way, by providing dens for squirrels or pack rats.. Just as we can select a global range of plants for a garden, we can select from all extant ethics and beliefs those elements that we see to be sustainable, useful, and beneficial to life and to our community.. The way to abolish such systems is to have one meeting where the sole agenda is to vote to abolish decision meetings – this is usually carried unanimously – and another where a consensus is reached to abolish consensus – this too shouldn’t take long.

These Permaculture Design Principles were set out by Bill Mollison in his intro book and here they are explained briefly with links to further explanation.

The Permaculture design principles below come from Bill Mollison’s later book “Introduction to Permaculture” which helps to frame this PDC handbook.. The permaculture design principles are patterns laid out on how nature’s inherent intelligence is formed in time and space.. Core of Permaculture is Design; design is a connection between things.. Each Element Performs Many Functions: Each element in the system should be chosen and placed so that it performs as many functions as possible.. Plant stacking: use varying heights of plants to obtain yields from more than one layer Time Stacking: in combination with the above, utilize species that provide yields early, thus gaining quick rewards from the intensive energy input of developing a space for a long term yield such as avocado’s or macadamia’s.. Accelerate Succession and Evolution: direct plants, animals, and soil life towards complexity and diversity to build our own climax species in a shorter time, forward your agriculture systems to more permanence, whether it is a grassland or a food forest.. When you put all of these Permaculture Design principles together, the flower of life pattern unfurls.

What is Permaculture? The term ‘Permaculture’ was coined by Bill Mollison in 1978. The word is a contraction of permanent agriculture and also of permanent culture. The aim of Permaculture is to create systems that are ecologically sound, economically viable and self sustaining. Its practitioners strive to use the inherent qualities of plants and animals,Continue reading About Permaculture →

Though Permaculture has no central structure, it has a strong sense of shared work towards evolving, sustainable, ethical and viable systems for Earth and People Care.. “Permaculture is the conscious design and maintenance of agriculturally productive ecosystems which have the diversity, stability and resilience of natural ecosystems.. The philosophy behind Permaculture is one of working with, rather than against, nature; of protracted and thoughtful observation rather than protracted and thoughtless action; of looking at systems in all their functions, rather than asking only one yield of them; and of allowing systems to demonstrate their own evolution.” (Source: Permaculture, A Designer’s Manual by Bill Mollison). “Permaculture is a response and an alternative WAY OF LIFE , based on a cooperative and non-exploitative relationship with the bio-sphere and as a part of it.” (Source: New Agriculture – a Permaculture point of view by Dr. Venkat). They conducted the first one-day permaculture workshop in Hyderabad in December, 1986, followed by the first Permaculture Design Certificate (PDC) Course in 1987 which was attended by thirty participants from India and Nepal.During the PDC course, it was decided to establish a 3.25 acre permaculture demonstration farm with DDS (Deccan Development Society) in Pasthapur, Zaheerabad district, Andhra Pradesh.. The PCAI has worked on developing more Permaculture demonstration farms, facilitating further establishments of nuclear Permaculture farms and interstate exposure visits, extending internship programmes and promoting volunteerism.In October 1990, the first Indian edition of Bill’s Permaculture Designers’ Manual was brought out jointly by the Permaculture Association of India and DDS.. This farm became a learning center for the Permaculture enthusiastic: this functional model farm is helping thousands of farmers, researchers, policy-makers and organisations from all over the world in gaining awareness about natural farming.. There, Narsanna Koppula organises long-term Permaculture internship programs, Permaculture Design Courses (PDC), Introduction to Permaculture courses and other workshops for national and international participants.. We want people to know how to recognise our resilience in terms of food, ancient knowledge and our culture and know we can swim through any situation.”Over the years, several Permaculture farms and organizations have emerged across India and they all met officially for the first time during the first ever National Permaculture Convergence held in Hyderabad in February 2016 ( ) and hosted by Aranya Agricultural Alternatives.. Born out of it, the Permaculture India Network is currently working to spread the Permaculture movement across the country in a structured manner.. Learn more about Permaculture, attend an Introduction to Permaculture or a Permaculture Design Course or get in touch with us at permanent.agriculture@gmail.comFollow/ Like us on Facebook for updates and happenings in the world of Permaculture.. – An Agricultural Testament – Sir Albert Howard– The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to Natural Farming – Masanobu Fukuoka– The Natural Way Of Farming – The Theory and Practice of Green Philosophy – Masanobu Fukuoka– Permaculture One: A Perennial Agriculture for Human Settlements – Bill Mollison & David Holmgren– Permaculture Two: Practical Design for Town and Country in Permanent Agriculture – Bill Mollison– Silent Spring – Rachel Carson– New Agriculture – a Permaculture Point of View – Dr. Venkat– Village Swaraj – M. K. Gandhi– Some Reflections on Watershed – Dr. Venkat– Permaculture: Principles and Pathways Beyond Sustainability – David Holmgren

The 12 principles published here are explained in detail in the book Permaculture: Principles and Pathways Beyond Sustainability, by David Holmgren. ...

What if we apply them to the design process of an architectural project?. According to Holmgren, the first principle is focused on the observation of nature, in order to understand the elements of the system in which we are working, before acting on it.. However, beyond the "sustainable techniques" that can be applied, an appropriate question in regards to this principle might be: how do we deliver the best possible architecture using only the available resources, or even less?. It makes sense to do it that way, because our work needs to fit a user and a context in particular, with needs and requirements that are relevant today.. The key is to 'self-regulate' what we project, in order to discourage all those design responses that at least today, we can identify as inappropriate.. Image © José Tomás Franco This principle is clear and we all have seen it at university or in our working life: "many hands make light work.". If we as architects are really committed to a project and its future, we will try to make our design minimize and facilitate maintenance requirements, from its materials to the size and the configuration of spaces.. It makes no sense.. If our project seems to be moving in the wrong direction, it may be good to turn it around completely.. How to Integrate the 12 Principles of Permaculture to Design a Truly Sustainable Project

Change your world.

For this discussion I’m going to use my favourite book from the permaculture movement, David Holmgren’s Permaculture: Principles and Pathways Beyond Sustainability.. A useful point made by Holmgren is that:. "Permaculture is not the landscape, or even the skills of organic gardening, sustainable farming, energy efficient building, or eco-village development as such.. He also says about ‘permaculture as counterculture’, and this I think is particularly relevant to the debate between the old-guard of the organic movement, and the newer wave more likely to be influenced by permaculture:. It’s ironic that Voltaire and his contemporaries put forward rational thinking as a means of freeing people from the tyranny of the religious state of the 18th century — a rational method which is now increasingly being used to subjugate people, just as the church once did.

✅ Fabulous story of permaculture by Bill Mollison and David Holmgren, two environmentalists who bet on a better and sustainable world ✅

Permaculture has taken real importance in recent years, but the truth is that it has been part of society for more than 45 years.. David Holmgren and Bill Mollison (both ecologists) begin to look for ideas that could change the way we live on earth and help with the care of the environment from activities as important as agriculture and many other things.. It is important to mention that within the history of permaculture there are also concepts that have a little more time.. The true relevance of permaculture David Holmgren begins with his book “Permaculture One” published in 1978 together with his friend and colleague Bill Mollison.. world.. If you were interested in the history of permaculture by Bill Mollinson and David Holmgren, you will also be interested in knowing its principles and how it works .

By Nandor Tanczos

Some of the practises and ideas that were once radical or groundbreaking have become widespread, both in food production (e.g. mulching gardens for soil conditioning and water retention) and increasingly in the sustainable business literature (many of the principles in The Blue Economy and in Natural Capitalism reflect permaculture thinking).. Sustainability practices often focus on resource efficiency and the substitution of harmful materials, however, the Jevons Paradox shows that highly efficient use of resources per unit can lead to increased net resource use.. The basic premise of permaculture is that systems already exist which are sustainable, resilient and regenerative.. The more we can understand the processes by which natural systems unfold and develop and the more we can grasp the principles and characteristics of ecology, the more harmonious and life-sustaining our own systems can become.. Ethical principles Permaculture begins with three ethical underpinnings: Earth Care, People Care and Fair Share.. All of our systems must make provision for life systems to continue and multiply at all levels.People Care is about creating systems that enhance our humanity.. Design principles Out of the permaculture ethics comes a series of design principles.. We can observe the niches and microclimates, the natural pathways of people and animals and where the biggest opportunities are.Essentially the same process takes place when applying permaculture design to a social or economic project.. Food Forests – an illustration Food forests are not a universal solution, but they do offer a good illustration of how permaculture design principles can come together.. Rather than a monoculture orchard with rows and rows of a single variety of a single species with bare poisoned earth between them, a food forest is a polyculture that attempts to mimic a natural forest, but one that is based around human need.. A food forest will be diverse in species, which builds resilience to disease and provides a wider range of yields.It will include some leguminous trees, perhaps grouped with different species of fruit trees, to fix nitrogen and act as an insect break.. A forest is layered horizontally and temporally so it might have: canopy trees for fruits, nuts and timber; low trees for fruit and coppicing; shrubs for berries and weaving materials; herbaceous bushes for teas, dyes, medicines, mulching; rooting plants for food and to cultivate the soil; soil covers such as fungi, strawberries, culinary herbs; and climbers that penetrate all the layers.. Plants will fruit at different times to assure a year-round supply of food and animals may be part of the system, to control insects and plants, and to manure the ground.. The self-sustaining ecosystem can be a metaphor for a horticultural food production system, grasslands agriculture , a whole economy, a series of industrial processes, a community organisation or a single business .. All of the many characteristics of a healthy ecosystem:diversity, complex associations, layering, making use of locally available and abundant resources, developing feedback loops, building energy stores, can be usefully applied to foster sustainability, resilience and regenerativity in a range of settings.

Australian educator, author and co-inventor of Permaculture, Bruce Charles 'Bill' Mollison, died on the 24 September 2016 in Sisters Creek, Tasmania. He has been praised across the world for his visionary work, and left behind a global network of 'peaceful warriors' in over 100 countries working tirelessly to fulfill his ambition to build harmony between humanity and Mother Earth.

In 1974, he with David Holmgren developed the beginning of the permaculture concept, leading to the publication of Permaculture One .. He founded the Permaculture Institute in 1978, his ideas influencing hundreds of thousands students worldwide.. In 1981, he received the Right Livelihood Award (sometimes called the 'Alternative Nobel Prize') for his work in environmental design.. He was eloquent about the need for peaceful ‘warriors', as he called them, to challenge the stupidity of ill-governance on a global scale.. He authored a number of books on the permaculture design system, the best known being The Permaculture Designers' Manual, published in 1988, and often cited as his most outstanding work.. Bill returned to his Tasmanian homeland to spend his final years at Sisters Creek on the Bass Strait coast.. Bill's legacy is that hundreds of thousands of past students have created a worldwide network to take his concept forwards.. The Ecologist is owned and published by the Resurgence Trust.

Permaculture Farming is a symbiotic approach to food production which encourages the efficient use of available resources. It aims to produce a diversity of products with a limited or positive impact on the environment and community.

Permaculture Farming is a symbiotic approach to food production which encourages the efficient use of available resources.. Permaculture Farming – Young, Overgrown Food Forest Permaculture has evolved considerably, with numerous guiding principles emerging from the core teachings.. Many practitioners now reference the updated 12 Permaculture Principles, published by Mr. David Holmgren in 2002, as the holy grail of Permaculture Design.. However, the design principles outlined in the book, Introduction To Permaculture by Bill Morrison and Reny Mia Slay, are often referenced when explaining the farming aspect of Permaculture.. Permaculture Farming is about optimizing resources, including the space you have at your disposal.. Permaculture farms are designed in such a way to make efficient use of energy, placing elements that need to be visited regularly closer to the central operating location.. Permaculture Farming uses several biological resources to save time, energy, and money.. In recent years, food forests have become a symbol of Permaculture systems, with many practitioners advocating its use in regenerating soils and increasing yields.. However, in Permaculture Farming, Diversity deals with various elements and their functions within the ecosystems.. This Diversity is responsible for the success of Agroforestry systems such as Syntropic Farming, which share similar philosophies to Permaculture.. Permaculture farming makes the best use of edges, both natural and artificial.. When planning your Permaculture system, you need to keep this Edge Effect in mind to use some of the most productive spaces on your future farm.. Ideally, to become a Permaculture Farmer, you should try to enroll in a practical course or apprenticeship in a location with a similar climate to where you intend to set up your Permaculture farm.. Various Elements Of Micro Farm ConceptSome Permaculture promoters also lead with the philosophies and ideologies associated with Permaculture, which might not align with local customs and beliefs.

Next September 11th the EUPC (European Permaculture Convergence) will take place in Bolsena, Italy.

Next September 11th the EUPC (European Permaculture Convergence) will take place in Bolsena, Italy.. Any European country can host EUPC through its associations of Permaculture experts by submitting a request to the Council of Permaculture ( ), an umbrella organization which has organized 12 EUPC conferences since 1992.. 1992 Germany EUPC 1. 1994 United Kingdom EUPC 2. 1996 Prinzhofte, Germany EUPC 3. 1998 Slovenia EUPC 4. 2000 Czech Republic EUPC 5. 2002 Slovakia EUPC 6. 2004 Czech Republic EUPC 7. 2006 Brno, Czech Republic EUPC 8. 2008 Hostetin, Czech Republic EUPC 9. 2010 Nethen, Belgium EUPC 10 report. 2012 Eschenrode, Germany EUPC 11. 2014 Batak Lake, Bulgaria EUPC 12. As a matter of fact Italy has the honour to host this EUPC for the first time in history and its organisation is all in the hands of the Permaculture Italian Academy, a non-profit organisation officially founded in 2006, with its main purpose being the promotion and dissemination of Permaculture principles and spirit as well as supporting the educational path of students that wish to obtain the Diploma in Applied Permaculture Design.. The book we are talking about is the definitive Permaculture design manual in print since 1988.. It covers aspects of designing and maintaining a cultivated ecology in any climate: the principles of design; design methods; understanding patterns in nature; climatic factors; water; soils; earthworks; techniques and strategies in the different climatic types; aquaculture; and the social, legal, and economic design of human settlement.. After reading the whole book and a full understanding of the permaculture movement all over the world I have realised how important it is to get others to read it.. I am not talking about random people whom to suggest a book to read at night before going to bed, but I am talking about people who are willing to design their life into this movement, a movement which pursues an organised and wise way of living on Earth, respectful of any living thing.. I believe that this book, translated into as many languages as possible, could speed the process up and take all of us to a common understanding of permaculture which is still, in some cases, misunderstood or even not known yet.. A challenge too big for one person alone, too complex for a single permaculture spirit.. Lake Bolsena: A Volcanic Miracle (see pictures attached). The priest interrupted the Mass and asked to be taken to Orvieto, the city where Pope Urban IV was then residing.. After visiting the Cathedral of Orvieto, many pilgrims and tourists go to visit St. Christina’s Church in Bolsena to see the place where the miracle occurred.

Bill Mollison is a living legend. He’s known as the genius of permaculture, "the David Brower of Australia," or a crusty old curmudgeon, depending on the source. But whether it&#821…

Bill: I’m certain I don’t know what permaculture is.. Bill: There’s no other book about design for living.. Alan: And it’s eerie that we don’t do it.. Alan: There’s an old Chinese expression: "If we don’t change our direction, we’ll wind up where we are headed.". People do things which I find quite amazing – things I would never have done and can’t understand very well.. Alan: So would you call what they’re doing permaculture as well?. Bill: Oh, I don’t know what you call it.. But they got there after a permaculture course.. You’ve got to get things right, working for you, and then go and say what that is.


1. Bill Mollison teaching Permaculture - Farmers Trees
(Zoran Petrov)
2. Interview with Bill Mollison
3. Permaculture with Bill Mollison - Epi-2 - Dry Lands
(Zoran Petrov)
4. Bill Mollison - Permaculture Design
5. Bill Mollison on Permaculture
6. PermaCulture Soils - Interview with Bill Mollison & Geoff Lawton

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