What is Permaculture? - World Wide Permaculture (2022)

Permaculture is a philosophy.

A philosophical view of the natural ecosystems in our world. Permaculture is a contraction of the words ‘permanent’, ‘agriculture’ and ‘culture’. For some, it is an essential way of life, for many an idea within their grasp and for others a dream to work and strive for.

The beginning of permaculture is hard to unearth, but the essence of modern permaculture can be traced all the way back to the 1920s. The term ‘Permanent Agriculture’ was coined by Joseph Russell Smith in 1929. His book ‘Tree Crops: A Permanent Agriculture’ detailed experiments with fruit and nut crops and introduced an inter-connected world view where trees and crops grow in mixed systems. The influence of Toyohiko Kagawa, who developed forest farming in 1930s Japan, also cannot be ignored.

P.A. Yeomans’ 1964 book ‘Water for Every Farm’ introduced an examination of land and water use in Australia. In the late 1960s, Bill Mollison and David Holmgren began became the brainchild of stable agriculture systems in Tasmania. An important facet of their observations was that natural systems are sustainable, they provide their own energy and recycle their own waste. Each component in the system plays an important role; from bees pollinating flowers to trees absorbing carbon dioxide. Motivated by an increase in industrial agriculture, a dependence on non-renewable resources and a poisoned ecosystem, Bill, and David, developed an approach which, in 1978, they would name ‘Permaculture’.

The Permaculture Design Manual is a foundation framework that is designed to evolve and adapt to a multitude of different climates and needs. The original focus of Permaculture was sustainable food production, economic and social systems, however, in recent years, some practitioners are adding spirituality and personal growth that aligns with their own personal philosophical and spiritual beliefs.

The foundation of this is that Permaculture can encompass everything which sustains and gives back and spirituality. It must be pointed out that neither Bill or David has embraced this.

Permaculture philosophy can be traced back many years, to before it was even named permaculture, and has developed and is developing into a design science. Monoculture cropping has been shown to deplete the soil of natural nutrients, leading to an increase in artificial fertilizers. From its humble beginnings, permaculture has always been about mimicking the natural systems we find in nature. It has been about the symbiotic relationships between plants, animals, fungi, trees, insects and the earth. It is only when we realize that nature has been growing for longer and more perfectly than we have, that we can begin to assume the permaculture mindset.

When we think about some of the core principles of Permaculture, we are led to these three tenets:

(Video) Permaculture: Producing food without destroying the planet

Care for the earth

Care for the people

Return of surplus

We have a system which provides for life systems and helps with growth, we have a system which provides people with the necessary resources to survive and we have a system where surpluses are reinvested to provide for the systems and the people.

Permaculture is all about the landscape, the functions of the individual elements and the assembly of individual species. It is concerned with the maximum benefit to the local environment which can be achieved by these elements, what connections can be formed and how can the individual components come together in a harmonious and mutually beneficial way. When we are thinking about implementing permaculture in our system we do not focus on the separate elements alone, rather we create relationships where the whole becomes greater than the sum of its parts.

In a permaculture system, we seek to minimize or even eliminate waste, human labor, and energy input. We achieve this by building systems which provide the maximum achievable benefit between the elements. Our system will be an ever changing, evolving one. As the system becomes more complex or more elements are added then we change and tweak to maintain the balance. Success or failure is a learning tool for us, a way for us to validate or refute our findings. Either way, we are driven on to create more balance, more synergy, less waste and a better way of life.

But what is Permaculture?

We have talked a lot about the philosophy and history of permaculture without really discussing the details of this philosophy. If we take a look at David Holmgren’s book ‘Permaculture: Principles and Pathways Beyond Sustainability’ we are introduced to the twelve permaculture principles:

1. Observe and interact: if you take the time to be with nature and engage with it then you can find the solutions to apply to our individual situation.

2. Catch and store energy: if we have systems which produce or collect resources then at peak times we can store those resources for times of need.

(Video) What is Permaculture? Why Permaculture?

3. Obtain a yield: to have a permaculture ecosystem then we must be able to be rewarded for the work we are doing.

4. Apply self-regulation and accept feedback: we should be constantly seeking feedback from the system, from ourselves and from others so that we can encourage our system to function well.

5. Use and value renewable resources and services: it is imperative that we respect the abundance we receive from nature and reduce our consumption.

6. Produce no waste: by valuing nature and making use of the resources available to us, we can ensure that nothing goes to waste.

7. Design from patterns to details: by taking the time to be in nature and stepping back we can observe the natural patterns in the world and out societies. This forms our design, the details will naturally follow.

8. Integrate rather than segregate: if we have the right things in place, relationships will inherently form between those things and they will begin to work together and support each other.

9. Use small and slow solutions: nature takes small steps in an ecosystem and so should we, small and slow systems are easier to maintain than big ones, allowing us to make better use of local resources and produce sustainable outcomes.

10. Use and value diversity: much like a society thrives and flourishes with diversity, so an ecosystem does too. Diversity reduces vulnerability and takes advantage of nature and the environment.

(Video) Masterclass 28: What is Permaculture in a changing world?

11. Use edges and value the marginal: the interface between things is where the most interesting events take place. Pay special attention to these areas as they are often the most valuable, diverse and productive elements of the system.

12. Creatively use and respond to change: even when we have unexpected change our impact can be positive with careful observation and intervention.

Not only are these principles fundamental to guiding us in permaculture, but they can also be applied to many areas of our lives and societies. Now that we have our twelve guiding principles we can start to dig down into what makes up a permaculture ecosystem.

What is Permaculture? - World Wide Permaculture (3)

Layers are one of the many tools used to design and implement functional ecosystems which are sustainable and of direct benefit to humans. Mature ecosystems have a large number of relationships between the component parts: trees, understory, ground cover, soil, fungi, insects and animals. Because trees, plants, etc grow to different heights it is extremely easy to grow a diverse community of life in a small space. The seven layers of permaculture are generally accepted as being:

1. Canopy/Tall Tree Layer
2. Sub-Canopy/Large Shrub Layer
3. Shrub Layer
4. Herbaceous Layer
5. Ground-cover/Creeper Layer
6. Underground Layer
7. Vertical/Climber Layer

With two more layers added to the list by some (though this is still open for debate):

8. Aquatic/Wetland Layer
9. Mycelial/Fungal Layer

Every forest in the world has a minimum of seven layers. (Some tropical and subtropical forests have up to nine layers and depending on how we classify layers). If we look at this natural system as designed instead or organized chaos then it makes our efforts to build our permaculture systems a lot easier. We are able to design a system where we can plant a large percentage of each layer with edible food while also planting species which give back to the local environment.

(Video) Permaculture and the new economy: Andy Goldring, CEO, Permaculture Association

We also break down our permaculture ecosystem into zones. Zones are a great way of breaking down the elements in our design based upon the frequency of human use and plant or animal needs. Elements which are attended to frequently are located closer to our house or dwelling and those that need limited contact or thrive in isolation are located further away. The zones are numbered from zero to five:

Zone 0: The house, or home center

Permaculture principles would be applied here to reduce the amount of water consumption and energy needs. We can harness natural energy sources such as sunlight and the wind, creating a harmonious, sustainable environment to live and work in.

Zone 1: Frequent attention (soft berries, greenhouses, compost, etc)

The zone which is closest to the house and contains those elements which need frequent attention. Can contain herbs, salad crops or berry bushes. Elements such as worm compost or raised beds.

Zone 2: Less frequent (perennials, bushes, orchards, bees, etc)

Less maintenance is required here, infrequent weeding or pruning may be needed. A great place for beehives and larger scale composting bins as well as orchards.

Zone 3: Main crops

This zone usually contains crops, both for domestic use and for trade. The set up of this zone can take some time, but when done it needs minimal interaction and care. Common tasks are weeding and watering and can be done once a week.

Zone 4: Semi-wild

A great place to forage and collect wild food and can be used to harvest wood.

Zone 5: Wilderness

An area of wilderness which requires no human intervention. A place where we can observe the natural ecosystems and cycles which exist. Through this, we can build up a natural reserve of bacteria, mold and insects integral in the maintaining of the other zones.

Bill Mollison talks about the care of the earth (provisions for all life systems), care of people (provisions for people) and setting limits to population and consumption (setting aside resources or a share of the surplus). David Holmgren, while echoing these sentiments, expands on these some more to include observation, feedback systems, design patterns, waste limits and the idea of slow and small solutions. Both are in agreement that we should first treat the earth and its creatures as our friends, showing respect to the systems in place. We should be concerned with resources and surplus; the life systems and people should have access to the necessary resources to survive within the system.

(Video) Global Gardener - Permaculture with Bill Mollison (Bullfrog Films clip)

Building a surplus is a sensible practice. But when we look at the earth as a living system, should we expand this idea of ‘surplus’ and ‘resource sharing’ to a grander scale? The interpretation of theses two authors and pioneers has led people to argue that they have a right to the surplus of others. This article will not discuss the validity of this claim.


What is Permaculture? - World Wide Permaculture? ›

Permaculture is an innovative ethics and design based process used to make agriculture more sustainable, restore soil, conserve water, and redirect waste streams. The process is inspired by the everyday relationships found in nature.

What does permaculture mean? ›

Definition Of Permaculture

Permaculture can be understood as the growth of agricultural ecosystems in a self-sufficient and sustainable way. This form of agriculture draws inspiration from nature to develop synergetic farming systems based on crop diversity, resilience, natural productivity, and sustainability.

What is an example of permaculture? ›

Examples include buildings that support outside plant life, backyard and balcony gardens, and energy-saving green initiatives such as the installation of gray water reclamation systems. The permaculture movement has its critics.

What is the meaning of permaculture and what is it's importance? ›

“Permaculture” as a practice, simply means observing nature, researching tools and techniques used by indigenous people in your bioregion, and engaging in a diligent, daily practice of balancing the needs of yourself and your family with those of the other species all around you.

What is the main focus of permaculture? ›

Permaculture aims to create stable, productive systems that provide for human needs, harmoniously integrating the land with people. The ecological processes of plants, animals, water, weather and nutrient cycles are integrated with human needs and technologies for food, energy, shelter and infrastructure.

What is the difference between natural farming and permaculture? ›

A farm is an energy source. Whereas, a permaculture site creates an energy loop. The farms nutrients are shipped off to market forever and so there is constant need to regenerate the soil through good soil-building practices and importing resources.

What is a permaculture lifestyle? ›

Permaculture is a way of life that encourages humans to coexist harmoniously with their environment. Rather than forcing ourselves to live in a specific manner, permaculture teaches us to observe the natural way of life and then adapt our lifestyles to align with that organic system.

What's the difference between agriculture and permaculture? ›

Agriculture is the practice of cultivating food for human consumption. Permaculture is “permanent agriculture” and integrates ecosystem patterns to improve the ethics and sustainability of farming practices. Depending on the scale, certain agricultural practices have environmental implications.

What is permaculture simplified? ›

Permaculture is an innovative framework for creating sustainable ways of living. It is a practical method of developing ecologically harmonious, efficient and productive systems that can be used by anyone, anywhere.

Is permaculture a religion? ›

Permaculture is not a religion. It does not claim any higher and ultimate truth, does not inquire the ultimate nature and purpose of the universe, does not involve any devotional and ritual observance and it is not a set of beliefs but rather of practices, ethics and attitudes.

What's the difference between agriculture and permaculture? ›

Agriculture is the practice of cultivating food for human consumption. Permaculture is “permanent agriculture” and integrates ecosystem patterns to improve the ethics and sustainability of farming practices. Depending on the scale, certain agricultural practices have environmental implications.

How is permaculture different from organic gardening? ›

In permaculture gardening, energy is transferred from one source to another before leaving the system entirely. Whereas, with organic gardening, since fertilizers are used, the waste from one plant becomes food for another organism.

What is a permaculture lifestyle? ›

Permaculture is a way of life that encourages humans to coexist harmoniously with their environment. Rather than forcing ourselves to live in a specific manner, permaculture teaches us to observe the natural way of life and then adapt our lifestyles to align with that organic system.

Is permaculture a religion? ›

Permaculture is not a religion. It does not claim any higher and ultimate truth, does not inquire the ultimate nature and purpose of the universe, does not involve any devotional and ritual observance and it is not a set of beliefs but rather of practices, ethics and attitudes.

Learn More: 

2.From the Permaculture Drylands Institute, published in The Permaculture Activist (Autumn 1989): Permaculture: the use of ecology as the basis for designing integrated systems of food production, housing, appropriate technology, and community development.. From Keith Johnson, editor/writer/webguy for the Permaculture Activist / Permaculture Design Magazine, Patterns for Abundance Design , previously director / founder of Sonoma County Permaculture.. From Lee Barnes (former editor of Katuah Journal and Permaculture Connections), Waynesville, North Carolina:. Permaculture (PERMAnent agriCULTURE or PERMAnent CULTURE) is a sustainable design system stressing the harmonious interrelationship of humans, plants, animals and the Earth.. To paraphrase the founder of permaculture, designer Bill Mollison: Permaculture principles focus on thoughtful designs for small-scale intensive systems which are labor efficient and which use biological resources instead of fossil fuels.. Key to efficient design is observation and replication of natural ecosystems, where designers maximize diversity with polycultures, stress efficient energy planning for houses and settlement, using and accelerating natural plant succession, and increasing the highly productive “edge-zones” within the system.. From Michael Pilarski, founder of Friends of the Trees, published in International Green Front Report (1988):. Permaculture is: the design of land use systems that are sustainable and environmentally sound; the design of culturally appropriate systems which lead to social stability; a design system characterized by an integrated application of ecological principles in land use; an international movement for land use planning and design; an ethical system stressing positivism and cooperation.. Carefully observing natural patterns characteristic of a particular site, the permaculture designer gradually discerns optimal methods for integrating water catchment, human shelter, and energy systems with tree crops, edible and useful perennial plants, domestic and wild animals and aquaculture.. This principle reminds us that we should design any system to provide for self-reliance at all levels (including ourselves), by using captured and stored energy effectively to maintain the system and capture more energy.. Much of this is achieved by application of the Integration and Diversity (Permaculture design principles 8 & 10) but it is also fostered by making each element within a system as self-reliant as is energy efficient.. MOLLISON'S PRINCIPLES Whereas permaculture ethics are more akin to broad moral values or codes of behavior, the principles of permaculture provide a set of universally applicable guidelines which can be used in designing regenerative habitats for humans and their allies.

Open communication is vital to the spread of the permaculture design system. It is the lifeblood of permaculture’s structure as a…

IT WAS SEEING A MAP claiming to show the countries where the permaculture design system is being practiced that triggered the question: Is permaculture really a global social movement and does the political context now exist within which that can happen?. there is no accepted definition of what being ‘present’ means; does it mean a few people who have done a permaculture design course or read the permaculture books, does it mean the presence of an organised permaculture association or a minimum number of permaculture practitioners actively engaged in projects?. claims that position permaculture as present in many countries do not say whether permaculture practitioners and course graduates are active or inactive claims do not identify what permaculture practitioners do in many of those countries; do they practice only a single or just a few elements of permaculture such as organic food production, or do they include other permaculture practices around community economics, what we now call ‘social permaculture’ and other elements of the design system?. To ask whether permaculture is or can become a truly global movement we need to look at the critical role of communications in establishing and activating the design system.. first, Western society at that time, the late 1970s, was primed for social and political change thanks to the questioning and disorganised search for alternatives emerging from the social ferment of the previous decade, the late-1960s, and which continued through the 1970s; social change was underway and pushing it along were technological and economic forces such as the computerisation of Western economies then getting started combined with a restlessness among society’s younger cohort stemming from the social experimentation and the ‘alternative’ subculture of the time; these combined social, technological and economic forces which reinforced the expectation of change and brought changes to working life and, later, to society itself; they created the social, political and intellectual basis for permaculture’s emergence and propagation the politico-social context that enabled the social change from which permaculture emerged — the freedoms of belief, expression, speech, access to information, publication and association present in Western democracies at that time; permaculture is the product of Western liberal democracy and it is difficult to see how it could have emerged from authoritarian states such as the authoritarian rightwing states and the communist bloc of the time; those types of states controlled the information their populations had access to and blocked the development of social movements, especially where they were critical of the state, such as permaculture was.. could permaculture have emerged from any other social system?. organic food production in home and community gardens regenerative farming natural systems restoration as in the Zone 5 of its landuse planning model community economic systems like Local Exchange and Trading Systems and other forms of distributive, peer-to-peer, community exchange economics the open, peer-to-peer exchange of ideas and mutual assistance (for example, the mutual assistance food garden design and construction scheme Permablitz, some permaculture social media, workshops and courses) participatory processes in decision-making and governance (known as ‘social permaculture’) a preference among some practitioners for alternative livelihood structures such as worker co-ops, platform co-ops and not-for-profit social enterprise with specific social goals distributionism , according to permaculture’s third ethic of sharing what is spare social justice , so all have opportunity the freedom for anyone to teach the design system , the informal and unenforcable agreement being that the teacher has completed a Permaculture Design Course open communications for the transfer of news, information and know-how alternative forms of governance such as participatory democracy.. Some permaculture practitioners have taken elements of the design system into authoritarian states.. Authoritarian states like China, Russia, some Middle Eastern states and North Korea do not like their citizens engaging in politics unless they are the politics of the governing party.

Permaculture is about working with nature to make a better world for us all. Nature's secrets of success provide us with a set of guiding principles that we can use to help us provide for our needs of food, shelter, energy and community in ways that are healthy, efficient and sustainable.

People care - enabling access to the resources people need for a good quality of life.. While the current trend back towards organic farming and gardening is a step in the right direction, any system of mono-culture (planting large areas with a single crop) will always be a struggle against nature's unstoppable tendency towards bio-diversity.. So when we design food growing systems, we ask ourselves "How would nature do this?. Permaculture systems have already been designed and applied successfully in all the different types of climate around the World, in many cases restoring productivity to land previously made barren by mono-culture systems and allowing people to feed themselves again.For most of us, bringing some Permaculture design into our own gardens is a first but very important step that we can all make.. The very best way to learn permaculture though is by taking a pdc (Permaculture Design Course).. The 10 designs from Aranya's Diploma in Applied Permaculture Design.

What is the difference between permaculture and organic gardening…? These are questions frequently asked but not always adequately answered – and the answers can vary wildly depending upon who you ask.

While organic gardening is certainly an important part of permaculture in practice, you couldn’t call an organic garden a “permaculture” unless it’s been permaculture designed, in which case it will be much more than just a productive organic garden.. Now the pigeon peas are entirely gone, the understory and ground covers are well established suppressing the weeds, and the fruit trees are starting to bear under the tree legume canopy.. Design is about where we place things in relationship to each other and how we integrate the connections between them.. The challenge to a permaculture designer is to see how these things interact and work with each other and to design them in such a way that they all work together as a whole functioning system.. Pollution is simply a resource that isn’t being productively used in the system and work is what we do to meet unsatisfied needs.. Robyn Francis Love all things permaculture - been living, teaching and designing it since 1983, started Djanbung Gardens 1994, love sharing the inspiration and the thrill of people 'getting it' and feeling empowered to make a difference in the world.

In this article, we cover some leading definitions of permaculture, as well as the ethics, principles, and key topics of the permaculture flower.

In Permaculture: A Designer’s Manual , Bill Mollison describes permaculture as “the conscious design and maintenance of agriculturally productive ecosystems which have the diversity, stability, and resilience of natural ecosystems.. At Santa Cruz Permaculture, we typically define permaculture as an ethically based whole-systems design approach that uses concepts, principles, and methods derived from ecosystems, nature connected communities, and other time-tested systems to create human settlements and institutions.. With permaculture and permaculture design, we are observing existing systems and natural processes in order to artfully, conscientiously, and strategically maximize or optimize how the various parts of a system work together to create abundance.. Permaculture Ethics (Photo credit: Knoxville Permaculture ) In addition to the ethics, there are also ~12 principles that guide permaculture design.. The Permaculture Flower (Photo credit: PermaculturePrinciples.com )To conceptualize the many sectors of our lives that can be influenced by permaculture, we like to refer to this permaculture flower.. Food Forests Fruit Tree Pruning and Care Agroforestry Nature Awareness Rehydrating the Earth Creating Water Retention Landscapes Rainwater Catchment Gabions Berms and Swales Greywater No-Till Agriculture & Carbon Farming Preparing Garden Beds for Planting Cover Cropping Mycorrhizal Network & Fungi Soil Ecology Composting Natural Building & Cob Construction Plant Guilds Crop Planning School Gardens Urban Gardens & Orchards Sudden Oak Life Integrated Animal Husbandry Holistic Management & Rotational Grazing Local Food Systems Designing to Mitigate Disaster Bioregional Networks The World Café The Work That Reconnects Nonviolent Communication Financial Permaculture Alternative Currencies Economic Permaculture Public Banking Community Development City Repair Transition Towns Social Permaculture Intentional Communities & Ecovillages Neighborhood Resilience

What is permaculture?  To find out, we contacted Permaculture Association Britain, and they sent us the following article. Our thanks to the author, Emmy Jenkins, a Permaculture Association member.

“Working with nature rather than against it, permaculture principles aim to create effective systems where all the elements of the whole work together to create a theoretically infinite yield — becoming more than the sum of their parts.. Once the soil is placed on your garden, the plastic packaging goes into landfill.“Instead, permaculture encourages the creation of one’s own soil in the same manner that a forest floor is created.. Permaculture Techniques for Everyone “While many enthusiasts worry that they don’t have enough space to employ permaculture techniques, that’s simply not the case,” writes Jenkins.. “From window boxes to orchards, from indoor herb gardens to hydroponics systems, permaculture instills the idea that ‘everything gardens’.. Leading with simple principles, permaculture encourages everyone to try out permaculture, no matter your lifestyle.. In permaculture, we apply this idea through companion planting, where we plant crops together that assist each other’s productivity.“Whether planting pots on a patio, beds in a garden, or window boxes on a balcony, this idea can be used.

Permaculture is a very broad field so it can be confusing, this guide will simplify things by looking at permaculture theory, practices and benefits.

Bill Mollison describes it as being a philosophy of working with nature rather than against nature.. From the beginning of time, people have had to work in harmony with nature.. Only in recent times have we had the technology to bend some areas of nature to our will and often for the benefit of the area earmarked for the use of this tech.. All the theory and practices that come from permaculture has been designed with these ethics at its core.. Most of permaculture theory consists of the design principles, the layers of an ecosystem and zones of a design.. To better understand what permaculture is, we can look at some common practises seeing how the ethics and design principles are implemented into practice.. It combines the use of trees, shrubs, grasses, and animals into one symbiotic production.. Here we see a very popular design of permaculture called food forests.. The way that animals interact with the land is also included in permaculture design.. Between the systems of harvesting water and the intelligent designs of water usage, permaculture saves a lot of water.. The output of one system becomes the input of the next system, and so on.. Our systems are thus designed to make use of the productivity of nature so that we can also benefit from it.

Hint: it’s NOT a revolution disguised as gardening.

First of all, permaculture isn’t a gardening technique.. That system can and should include plants and other living beings but no garden, by itself, can be a permaculture design unless it connects to the rest of the system (water, energy, waste, built environment, etc.). To say that permaculture is “revolution disguised as gardening” not only confuses people, it radically understates the power of permaculture.. The long answer:“Permaculture” as a practice, simply means observing nature, researching tools and techniques used by indigenous people in your bioregion, and engaging in a diligent, daily practice of balancing the needs of yourself and your family with those of the other species all around you.. Nobody owns “permaculture.” All of us have this knowing inside of us, and the ecological design process is about uncovering that knowing, and applying it to our physical, social, and emotional landscapes, with the goal of creating living, evolving systems that mimic nature, produce food and energy, and regenerate, rather than annihilate, the Earth.. Yes, gardening is part of any ecological design, because plants are a part of life.. In addition to gardening, permaculture is about:. Earth love, people love, self love, and love for all species.. Photo by Heather Jo FloresAgain, for the folks in back:. ALL whole-system permaculture designs will incorporate plants and food production, and almost ANY style of gardening could be part of a whole-system permaculture design, but no garden, by itself, is ever a permaculture design .. This is why the term “my permaculture garden” is a bit of a misnomer, and why people need to move away from using permaculture as a synonym for organic gardening.. Can you see how these ideas and fundamental ecological truths could help you to design not only a garden and homestead, but also a social and emotional landscape that is more resilient, abundant, and joyful than the current (degenerative) systems in which most of us now exist?. In sum, permaculture is not a gardening technique, but gardening with a permaculture mindset is the gateway to understanding how to create a permaculture system.. So basically, here’s how to go from “just gardening” to “doing permaculture”:. Want to see some samples of permaculture designs GO HERE and if you want to learn permaculture for free, via a yearlong series of online classes that I created for you, go to www.freepermaculture.com


Another way to describe it is "designing human systems to mimic natural systems" and "designing systems that work with nature instead of against it.". A well-designed permaculture system will have little/no waste, and may actually make the local natural environment better than it was before.. In doing so, the concepts and practices of permaculture build communities that are adaptable to a changing climate.. People care , which refers to doing everything we can to help as many people as possible.. Permaculture principles will be described in more detail below.. He notes that permaculture "brings to the table tangible and ethically based solutions for systemic change" and that it seeks to design systems that allow people not only to "survive" but to " thrive .". Principle 6 is “Produce No Waste.” This is where we make the waste of one part of our system the food for another.. Principle 8 is “Integrate Rather Than Segregate.” This principle says that the more relationships between parts of your systems, the stronger, more productive and more resilient your system becomes.. Permaculture systems should be productive, e.g., a garden that produces an abundance of food.. Permaculturalists use a lot of natural designs as the basis for intentional design, e.g., by using natural materials and shapes when designing buildings.. A properly designed urban environment will optimize the use of local resources such as renewable energy, local food sources, and low-impact transportation.. Another way to describe it is "designing human systems to mimic natural systems" and "designing systems that work with nature instead of against it.". It is a major focus of permaculture, and modern sustainability studies, in particular with regards to climate change.. There are 12 design principles in permaculture, and each should be considered when designing any human system of any scale.


1. 2022 Permaculture Garden Tour "Oneness Versus the 1%" - Vandana Shiva
(Paul D)
2. Towards Permaculture Centres Worldwide
3. What are the 12 Permaculture Design Principles #permaculturelife
(Thinglish Lifestyle)
4. Can Permaculture Feed the World? | Takota Coen | Hope, Knowledge, Plan Summit 2021
5. Permaculture and Climate Change
(Broken Ground)
6. The Permaculture Principles
(Oregon State University Ecampus)

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